Cartwright Consulting Co.
Peter Cartwright has been in the water and wastewater treatment industry for 45 years and has had his own consulting engineering company since 1980. He has written more than 300 articles and book chapters and has presented over 300 lectures around the world. He was the 2016 McEllhiney Distinguished Lecturer for the National Ground Water Research and Educational Foundation where he presented over 35 lectures on groundwater contamination mitigation throughout the world. He is a Chemical Engineering graduate from the University of Minnesota registered Professional Engineer in that state.
Chloride Contamination - Issues and Mitigation Strategies
Chloride levels in U.S. lakes and rivers are steadily increasing. Recent data from the U.S.G.S. indicate that 37% of the drainage area of the contiguous U.S. has experienced a significant increase in salinity, and this will certainly increase. In Minnesota, 50 lakes are now listed as impaired, with chloride levels above the chronic water quality limit of 230 mg/L. Most chloride contamination in the more northern states comes from runoff from winter road salt application; however, consumer and manufacturing demand for soft water has resulted in water softener brine discharge as the number one source of chloride contamination in many states, followed by agricultural and industrial wastewater discharges. Chlorides in water supplies can be toxic to fish, amphibians and aquatic vegetation, as well as many animals. This chemical degrades soil quality and is a major cause of corrosion. The concern in California is such that at least one municipality has severely restricted the use of residential water softeners. This presentation investigates the increasing concentrations of chlorides in water from numerous sources. It addresses the challenges in monitoring chloride concentrations and new developments in that area. the numerous mitigation strategies that have been offered are discussed in detail. New developments are addressed and prognostications for success are offered.